Assam is a State of India Which is Situated in North-Eastern Area.
It has four distinct regions: Brahmaputra, Barak River valleys, Karbi Angling and North Cachar Hills. Its capital is Dispur, situated in Guwahati. Assam is a state of diversified culture and customs. The state derived its name from word ‘Asama’ means peerless.
Dispur: It lies in Kamrupan District and is capital of Assam. The state has 27 districts.
Population: According to census of 2011 its population is 31,169,272 who belong to different ethnic groups.
Languages: Assamese being an official language is spoken widely but Bengali, Bodo, English and Hindi are also used at some of the areas.
Cities: Main cities of the state are Guwahati, Silchar, Dibrugarh and Nagaon. The cities represent the vibrant and old culture of the place. It has abundance of natural beauty and infrastructural facilities. It is also favorite destination of tourists.
There are three main physical regions of the state: the Brahmaputra River Valley Barak River and hilly region. Brahmaputra is the oldest and the largest. It is joined by several rivulets and small rivers of adjoining areas. Barak River Valley is extensive area of agriculture in southern region. Both Barak River Valley and Brahmaputra Valley are believed to contain deposits from Neogene and Paleogene periods. The deposits may be conglomerates. Coal seams, sandy clays, and limestone etc. The most significant peak is Chenghen Hishon.
The place is prone to earthquakes. There have been many instances of food and landslides also.
Climate: The state is free from extreme high and extreme low temperatures. Average temperature in Assam ranges from 7 degree centigrade to 36 degree centigrade. Surprisingly, annual rainfall is highest in country as well as in world also.
Flora and fauna: Before creation of Meghalaya and Mizoram in 1970, Assam’s two fifth areas were for forests. There are nearly 70 species of trees used mainly for commercial purpose. Sal, Hollong, bamboo, orchids and ferns are some of the abundant varieties.
Assam is also famous for having large numbers of wildlife sanctuaries. Kaziranga National Park and Manas Wildlife Sanctuary are two UNESCO World Heritage sites. They have been doing wonderful jobs in protecting endangered species like one horned rhinoceros and tigers and leopards. hornbills are specialty of Assam. Apart from this, it also houses many species of reptiles including poisonous snakes, cobra, lizards and turtles. There are also many species of birds and animals. Primates like Langurs and gibbons are also found there.
Tea in Assam:
Assam is well renowned for tea cultivation throughout the country as well as in the world. Tree plants were found naturally in the valley of Brahmputra but the credit for making it popular and for commercial purpose goes to British Empire’s official Robert Bruce who discovered it in 1923. Assam contributes 51% in tea production to India and 1/6th to the world.
Assam has world’s not only oldest but also largest tea research center where more advanced methods of tea cultivation are invented for example soil testing, using fertilizers and selecting various sites in order to enhance the production of tea.
With the concept of marketing, a Tea Auction Center at Guwahati was set up in 1970, which is world’s second largest tea auction center. Tea cultivation has strengthened the economy of the state.
Temples In Assam:
This is the place where all religions flourished from time to time and left their proofs of existence and beliefs. It has been a home to Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs and Buddhists. The most famous temples of the place are:
Kamakhya Temple: The shrine of goddesss Kamakhya is situated at summit of Nilachal Hills and is just 8km from Guwahati. The place remains thronged with pilgrims on Ambubashi and Manasha.
Nabagraha Temple: As the name suggests this temple is dedicated to nine planets and was center of study of astronomy and astrology. It is situated on the top of Chitra Chal Hill of Guwahati. City of Guwahati is referred as city of eastern Astrology or Pragliyotishpur.
Basishtashram: The place has both religious as well as tourism significance. It is believed to be place of Vedic sage Bashishtha. The scenic beauty is contributed by three rivulets named Sandhya, Lalita and Kanta which meet here. It is just 12 km from Railway station of Guwahati.
Mahabhairab Temple: This is a holy place where Mahabhairab, an incarnation of Lord Shiva is worshiped.
Madan Kamdev: It is place of magnificent archeological ruins and origin of the place is still a mystery. It is situated just 40 km away from Guwahati. It is believed that Madan took rebirth here and mixed with Rati.
Poa _ Mecca: the mosque built over here is believed have one fourth of sacredness of Mecca and called Poa_ Mecca for this reason.
Da_Parbatia: A finest specimen of old and iconoclastic art of Assam is just few km from Tejpur town. Its intrinsic carvings of Gupta style of sculpture can be seen best in door jambs with two goddesses Ganga and Yamuna standing with garlands in their hands.
Agnigarh: It is one of the most fascinating hillocks facing Brahmaputra which has historical significance as well as bounty of nature. It is believed that Princess Usha only daughter of King Rana was confined in the palace surrounded by fire.
Oil in Assam:
Assam is proud state of four oil refineries. It was the first state in India where oil was dug out at Digboi in 1889. The refinery at Digboi started the commercial production in 1901. Indian Oil Corporation has refining capacity of 3 lakhs tones of liquid petroleum gas(LPG), diesel, furnace oil, coke etc. another refinery is situated at Noonmati in Gurwahati. The third refinery is known as Bongaigaon Refinery and Petro- Chemicals Limited (BRPL) is situated at Dhaligoan near Bongaigaon . It was started in 1962. The fourth refinery with a refining capacity of 3 million tomes of oil and other products was started at Numaligarh of Golaghat district in 1999.
Buddhism and Assam:
It is believed that Assam had glorious past of Buddhism. According to legends, Padmasambhava a founder Tibetan Buddhism died in Hajo a town near Guwahati. Buddhist traverller Huen Tsang from China travelled across Assam who had soft corner for Buddhism.
Modern Assam has few traces of Buddhism and few are known how the transformation took place. There are still communities like Tai Singphos Khamti Chakmas etc. It has many old time monasteries due to its close proximity with Tibet . Tawang Monastery is one of the famous one. Several other monasteries are dotted across Assam.
Satras in Assam:
Founded by Sankardeva, father of Assamese culture and tradition, Satras in an institution of Vaishnavism in Assam. It is a platform to promote songs and dance started by Sankaradeva and hub of other activities like crafts. Satras are not only monasteries but a large prayer hall where Govenda is worshipped through dance music and drama. It is surrounded by dormitories and bathing tanks for monks.
Aunuati Satra: It has extensive collection of ancient artifacts Assamese old utensils and jewellery and specimen of handicrafts.
Dakhinpat Satra: This is place visited by pilgrims during Rasotsava one of the main festival of Assam.
Cities in Assam: Silchar , Jorhat Haflong Nagoan Guwahati Tezpur Dispur Sibsagar
District of Assam: Dibrugarh Nagaon Jurhat Tinsukia Sibsagar Sonitpur
Rivers in Assam: Dibrugarh, Jorhat, Bongaigaon, Nagaon ,Sonitpur, Dima Hasao,Udalguri.
Scheduled Tribes in Assam: There are 23 types of schedules tribes in Assam and 40% among them belong to Bodo tribe. Other main tribes are Miri, Rabha, Kachari Cachari, Deori, Hahai and many more.
Culture and festival: Culture of Assam is of hybrid types and still surviving as subsystems. Nowadays, a new wave of western and north Indian culture is also influencing people up to some extent. Being a diversified state, variety of festivals is celebrated among whom Bihu is the most famous one. Another main festival is Durga Puja which is also celebrated with great fervor. Muslim community mainly celebrate two Eids.
Main Tourist Attractions in Assam:
Rich in wildlife reserves like Kaziranga National Park Pobitora Wildlife century, Naneri National Park and many more. Among them are:
Guwahati : It boasts of being the biggest city in North- East India and a gateway of the state. Famous tourist spot here are Kamakhya Temple, River Cruise on River
Brahmaputra, Shankardev Kalakshetra , Umananda Temple, Assam state Zoo etc.
Majuli: It is largest freshwater island in South Asia in the Brahmaputra River. One can take view of Vaishnavite Satras like Kamalabari Satra Dakhinpat Satram Garamurh Satra, Auniati Satra Bengenaati Satra and many more.
Kaziranga National Park: this park has been declared as World Heritage Site by UNESCO. It is doing commendable job by protecting rarest of rare Great Indian one- Horned Rhinoceros. Other parks include Manas National Park and Orange National Park.
Planning and Development: This department is responsible for local development works. Umtru Hydel Project and administration of overseas scholarship schemes were also under this department. There have been certain plans like five Year and Annual Plan, Bodo Territorial Council Plan. It works in the formulation and implementation of review as well as Maintenance of records and financial progress.
Panchayat & Rural Development: There are certain schemes for various purposes.
Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act:
With the aim of providing livelihood security and social protection to the vulnerable people of the society the act came into existence on September 7, 2005. Empowerment of disadvantaged especially women and Scheduled castes is another motto of the scheme.
Indira Awaas Yojana: A flagship scheme of the Ministry of Rural Development has been proving shelter to homeless or those who have inadequate resources for the same.
Arriving by Air: Guwahati’s international airport is well connected to main cities of India.
Arriving by Rail: It is connected through three major routes. Guwahati’s largest railway station is linked to many places.
By roads: The state has web of broad and narrow roads and no place is inaccessible.
Keywords: Indira Awaas Yojana, Panchayat & Rural Development, Planning and Development, Main tourist attractions in Assam, Rivers in Assam, Cities in Assam, Satras in Assam, Oil in Assam
Other Indian States
Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chandigarh, Delhi, Goa, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Jammu and Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tripura, Telangana, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Uttaranchal, West Bengal